• In aging and sundamaged skin – there are two main aspects of repair that need to be addressed: damage to the DNA, and tissue damage (ie collagen and elastin).

    DNA Repair

    All cells have the ability to repair damaged DNA, but when those repair mechanisms fail, mutations can accumulate. This failure is also thought to be a factor in the development of cancer. It is also, according to the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, the main cause of human aging.

    How DNA Damage Occurs

    When sunlight strikes the chemicals that makes up your DNA, two of its parts can become fused together, like two pages of a book stuck together. The result is that the coded instructions on this part of the DNA cannot be read, affecting the cell’s ability to function. At the same time, when the cell divides and attempts to transfer its genetic information to the new cell – the new cell “inherits” incomplete DNA material. It doesn’t take long before this process to become crippling to the cells, resulting in mutations and early cell death (which lead to photoaging and/or skin cancer)

    Naturally, the body has in place its own DNA repair mechanisms. Its cells respond to DNA damage by unleashing a complex of enzymes designed to hunt down and patch up the damage. But, this is an enormous task that takes time. A day after a sunburn, the skin has only repaired about half of the DNA damage. By the second day, one-quarter of the damage is still unrepaired. Eventually, if enough time goes by, a cell with broken DNA is bound to duplicate, but to do so, it has to skip past the damage – changing the DNA code itself.

    As we age, our DNA repair process slows down and the time needed to repair the cells becomes longer and longer – resulting in the accumulation of damaged cells (which reproduce and create mutated cells).

    DNA Repair Treatments:
    Arabidopsis Extract, Plankton Extract, Micrococcus Lysate, Pro-Niacin

    Arabidopsis Extract (Roxisomes): This purified repair enzyme recognizes the most common form of oxidative damage to DNA (caused by UVA rays) and initiates the repair process deep within the nucleus of the cell. The liposome-encapsulated enzymes enter the cell’s nucleus, repair DNA damage and protect the energy-generating mitochondria from free radical damage.

    Plankton Extract (Photosomes): This DNA repair enzyme is extracted from ocean plankton – known for their extraordinary ability to harness light energy for cellular repair. When exposed to UV rays, the DNA repair enzymes are activated and kick into high gear – repairing DNA damage at an ultra-accelerated rate.

    Micrococcus Lysate (Ultrasomes): Extracted from a UV resistant marine microbe, Ultrasomes work both day and night to help repair sun-inflicted DNA damage at an accelerated rate (independent of UV-light activation). Their repairing abilities speed recovery and reduce post-sunburn peeling.

    Pro-Niacin: The form of Niacin known as Nicotinic Acid, this form of Vitamin B initiates the release of leptin, a natural repair hormone – which aids in the DNA repair process.

    Tissue Repair

    When cells are exposed to UV light, they send out stress signals known as cytokines. The release of these stress signals triggers a wound-healing response characterized by the release of collagenase and elastase. These enzymes are designed to clear away dead or injured tissue and make room for new skin. However, they also tend to create collateral damage – accidentally digesting pieces of healthy collagen and elastin. The resulting injury is called a “microscar” - and over the years, skin can accumulate thousands of them. Characterized by incorrect deposition of collagen and skin cell layering – the build up of microscars lead to wrinkling, poor skin texture, and age spots. Wound healing agents attempt to restore proper collagen balance and structure by stimulating new collagen production and degrading abnormally large cross-linked collagen.

    Wound Healing Agents:
    Copper Peptides, Centella Asiatica (or Gotu Kola) extract